Chemical castration is the use of hormonotherapy to lower testosterone and thus diminish sexually deviant behavior. Castration can be accomplished through surgery or hormonotherapy. Chemical castration is the preferred method of castration for sexually deviant behavior in the U.S. In 1996, California became the first state to enact legislation allowing the use of chemical castration as a penalty for child molestation (Penal Code section 645). This has led to the enactment of similar statutes in at least eight other states. Unlike surgical castration, chemical castration is not permanent. When the hormone medications are discontinued, the testosterone levels usually return to normal.